Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change

Advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol

biological-diversity-and-climate-change

produced by  the CBD’s Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biological Diversity and Climate Change

Shelfmark: CP/CV.unfccc/001

Number 10 in the CBD technical series, this work was produced in 2003 by experts given the mandate to:
(a) Analyse possible adverse effects on biological diversity of measures that might be taken or are being considered under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol;
(b) Identify factors that influence biodiversity’s capacity to mitigate climate change and contribute to adaptation and the likely effects of climate change on that capacity;
(c) Identify options for future work on climate change that also contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity

This report is also available online as a PDF.

From the foreword:

 

Since 2002, the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Conference of the Parties has turned its attention to the potential impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems of the various options for mitigating or adapting to climate change and requested the Convention’s Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) to develop scientific advice on these issues.

 

SBSTTA established an ad hoc technical expert group to carry out an assessment of the inter-linkages between biodiversity and climate change. The results are contained in the present report, which draws upon best available scientific knowledge, including that provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

 

The report concludes that there are significant opportunities for mitigating climate change, and for adapting to climate change while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity. However, these synergies will not happen without a conscious attention to biodiversity concerns. The report identifies a wide range of tools that can help decision makers assess the likely impacts and make informed choices.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LEAD AND CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2. BIODIVERSITY AND LINKAGES TO CLIMATE CHANGE

2.1 Biodiversity: definitions and importance
2.2 Past and current impacts on biodiversity
2.3 Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: links to climate change 26 2.4 2.4 Research needs and information gaps

CHAPTER 3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY: OBSERVED AND PROJECTED IMPACTS

3.1 Observed changes in the climate
3.2 Projected changes in the climate
3.3 Observed changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems associated with climate change
3.4 Projected impacts of changes in mean climate and extreme climatic events on terrestrial (including rivers, lakes and wetlands) and marine ecosystems
3.5 Projected impacts on biodiversity of coastal and marine ecosystems
3.6 Projected impacts on traditional and indigenous peoples
3.7 Populations, species and ecosystems vulnerable to climate change
3.8 Impacts of changes in terrestrial and marine biodiversity on regional and global climate
3.9 Research needs and information gaps

CHAPTER 4. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION OPTIONS: LINKS TO, AND IMPACTS ON, BIODIVERSITY

4.1 The Carbon Cycle
4.2 The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol
4.3 The Ecosystem Approach of the Convention on Biological Diversity
4.4 Mitigation options
4.5 Afforestation, reforestation and deforestation
4.6 Deforestation
4.7 Revegetation
4.8 Land management
4.9 Carbon sequestration in ocean systems, wetlands and geologic formations
4.10 Energy activities
4.11 Options for adaptation to climate change
4.12 Research needs and information gaps

CHAPTER 5. APPROACHES FOR SUPPORTING PLANNING, DECISION MAKING AND PUBLIC DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Institutional arrangements
5.2 Impact assessments
5.3 Environmental and social standards
5.4 Decision processes and decision analytical frameworks and tools
5.5 Value and valuation techniques
5.6 Criteria and indicators for project design, baseline description, monitoring and evaluation
5.7 Research needs and information gaps

CHAPTER 6. SELECTED CASE STUDIES: HARMONIZATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES, WITH BIODIVERSITY CONSIDERATIONS

6.1 Overview of key issues and lessons learned from the case studies
6.2 Research needs and information gaps
6.3 Annex: Description of the case studies

APPENDIX I. MEMBERS OF THE AD HOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
APPENDIX II. GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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